“Every boat is …


“Every boat is copied from another boat… Let’s reason as follows in the manner of Darwin. It is clear that a very badly made boat will end up at the bottom after one or two voyages, and thus never be copied… One could then say, with complete rigor, that it is the sea herself who fashions the boats, choosing those which function and destroying the others.” – Alain (Émile Chartier), Propos d’un Normand (1908); as quoted in “Natural selection and cultural rates of change” by D. S. Rogers and P. R. Ehrlich (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:3416–3420


The ‘America’ Map – Review of ‘A Renaissance Globemaker’s Toolbox’ – NYTimes.com

The ‘America’ Map - Review of ‘A Renaissance Globemaker’s Toolbox’ - NYTimes.com

The ‘America’ Map – Review of ‘A Renaissance Globemaker’s Toolbox’ – NYTimes.com.

– extracts from the article –

Or possibly they favored Vespucci because he held more firmly to the growing consensus that this was indeed a New World, not the Indies (as Columbus so wanted to believe), and because he wrote more colorfully than Columbus about the people he encountered.

The map is also the source of an abiding mystery. How did Waldseemüller and Ringmann already know so well the configuration of South America, before any recorded Spanish or Portuguese voyages around the horn to the west coast? How did they know of the Pacific before Balboa made his sighting in 1513? Hard to believe it was just a guess or futuristic vision of what world geography would come to be.

Science and exploration were stretching minds to distant horizons, once unknown.

“Rather than a producer of theories,” Dr. Hessler observes, Schöner “was instead a disseminator, a compiler and a transmitter of the new science and mathematics.”

OPERA observed a third neutrino tau

27 March 2013 – INFN – OPERA observed a third neutrino tau.

The OPERA international experiment at the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) has observed a third neutrino tau candidate from “flavour” oscillation. The “muon-type” neutrino produced at CERN in Geneva arrived at the Gran Sasso laboratory as a “tau” neutrino. An extremely rare event observed only twice before, in 2010 and in 2012.

The data analysis will be pursued for two more years searching for other tau neutrinos that could definitely prove this very rare phenomenon.